Libertadores: A collection of eight films about the heroes of latin american independence
JOSE DE SAN MARTIN - Revolución, el cruce de los andes (Argentina)

JOSE DE SAN MARTIN (1778–1850)


Jose Francisco de San Martin, named the liberator, was born in Yapeyú (currently, San Martin), Misiones in 1778. In 1784 Jose de San Martin went to Spain with his family where he began his military career in Murcia. At 13 he was baptized in Oran. Later he intervened in several wars that awarded him promotions within the military. He was finally given the rank of Lieutenant Coronal of Rosellon de las Naranjas and the Independence against Napoleon.
After this brilliant military career and just after the revolution in America began, San Martin, who had maintained contact with Masonic loggias, traveled to London and from there to Buenos Aires, arriving in 1812. The Government commended him to:

Form the Regiment of Granaderos as well as act as the leader of the Northern Army, substituting Belgrano.

The struggle against the Realists made it impossible to advance towards Lima and the border became vulnerable.

After the defeat of the Chilean army in Rancagua, San Martin gave shelter to O’Higgins – with whom he established a long friendship – and his troops in Mendoza where he would be named Governor.


There, San Martin and O’Higgins dedicated their lives to organize the liberation army so they could invade Chile by crossing the Andes, the biggest military achievement of all times. Once they crossed, they defeated the Realist Army and on the 1st of February 1817, they marched into Santiago de Chile. The Assembly proclaimed the independence of the country and named him Supreme Leader, a position that he gave to O’Higgins.

San Martin traveled to Buenos Aires with the aim of doing the same for Peru. However, what he received was an offer to intervene directly in the internal disputes of the country, something that he also refused to do.

Meanwhile, Osorio’s Realist army had defeated the Chilean patriotic forces. Again, in Chile, San Martin reorganized the demoralized troops and defeated Osorio in Maipu, on April 5th 1818 and assured independence in Chile.

After initiating his campaign in Peru en 1820, which culminated with its independence a year later, he was designated Peru’s Protector, a position he accepted until the entire country was to become independent.


San Martin met with Bolivar in Guayaquil in 1822, where both men spoke of the future of the continent and set the foundations for the Future Congress of Panama. San Martin gave up his position in Peru and retired to public life and left for Europe in 1824.

Three years later he returned to Buenos Aires but did not disembark. Affected by the fratricide struggle that confronted his compatriots, he left again for Europe and lived in France.

He died in Boulogne, France in 1850.

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